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GNU's Bulletin June, 1993
The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.
Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: (617) 876-3296
675 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309
USA Electronic mail:
GNU's Who GNU's Bulletin What Is the Free Software Foundation? What Is Copyleft? Free Software Support Hundred Acre Consulting Expands Donations Translate Into Free Software Cygnus Matches Donations! OCEAN Integrated-Circuit Design System Informal ``GCC Consortium'' GNUs Flashes Moscow Free Software Conference LPF Files Amicus Brief What Is the LPF? Project GNU Wish List The Text Software Initiative Free Information Sources Free Software and GNU in Japan Project GNU Status Report GNU Documentation GNU Software Available Now Contents of the Emacs Tape Contents of the Scheme Tape Contents of the Languages Tape Contents of the Utilities Tape Contents of the Experimental Tape Contents of the X11 Tapes Berkeley Networking 2 Tape VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes Tape Subscription Service How to Get GNU Software GNU Source Code CD-ROM The Deluxe Distribution MS-DOS Distribution Contents of the Demacs diskettes Contents of the DJGPP diskettes Contents of the Selected Utilities diskettes Contents of the Windows diskette Free Software for Microcomputers FSF T-shirt Thank GNUs Free Software Foundation Order Form
Michael Bushnell is still working on the GNU Hurd and maintains
tar. Jim Blandy has prepared GNU Emacs 19.
Roland McGrath is polishing the GNU C library, maintaining GNU
make and helping with the GNU Hurd.
Tom Lord is working on Oleo, the GNU spreadsheet, as well as Rx,
a faster replacement for regex. Jan Brittenson is working on
the C interpreter. Mike Haertel is making GNU
POSIX-compliant and beginning work on optical character recognition.
Noah Friedman is our system ambiguator, release uncoordinator
and maintains a few GNU programs in his copious spare time.
Carl Hoffman has hopped aboard as fundraiser and conference organizer. Melissa Weisshaus is now in charge of Publications. She is currently editing new editions of our documentation and working on the GNU Utilities Manual.
Lisa `Opus' Goldstein has been promoted to Treasurer, after the resignation of Robert J. Chassell who had been our Secretary/Treasurer since FSF was formed 7 years ago; Bob is now writing his Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp and remains on our Board of Directors. Larissa Carlson is Lisa's new office assistant; Gena Lynne Bean has left us to further her education. Spike MacPhee assists RMS with administrative tasks. Charles Hannum works on typesetting and many other jobs.
Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks such as C compiler maintenance. Volunteer Len Tower remains our on-line JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists and gnUSENET, information requests, etc.
Written and Edited by: Jan Brittenson, Melissa Weisshaus,
Noah S. Friedman,
Charles Hannum, Richard Stallman and Leonard H. Tower Jr.
Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa and Jamal Hannah
Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
The GNU's Bulletin is published in January and June of each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the front page. Enclosing a business sized self-addressed stamped envelope ($0.52) and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're from outside the USA, sending a mailing label rather than an envelope and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)
Copyright (C) 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved and that the distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice.
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's abilities and rights to copy, redistribute, understand and modify computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software in all areas of computer use. Specifically, we are putting together a complete integrated software system named "GNU" (GNU's Not Unix) (pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already working and we are distributing them now.
The word "free" in our name pertains to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software. Either way, you have two specific freedoms once you have the software: first, the freedom to copy the program and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change the program as you wish, by having full access to source code. Furthermore, you can study the source and learn how such programs are written. You may then be able to port it, improve it and share your changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, or you may give away copies.
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need for you to purchase a proprietary system.
Besides developing GNU, FSF distributes copies of GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts tax-deductible gifts to support GNU development. Most of FSF's funds come from its distribution service. We are tax exempt; you can deduct donations to us on your U.S. tax returns.
The Officers of the Foundation are: Richard M. Stallman, President; and Lisa Goldstein, Treasurer/Secretary. The Foundation Board of Directors are: Richard M. Stallman, Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this allows anyone to copyright and restrict its use against the author's wishes, thus denying others the right to access and freely redistribute it. This completely perverts the original intent.
To prevent this, we copyright our software in a novel manner. Typical software companies use copyrights to take away your freedoms. We use the copyleft to preserve them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on the program to include the rights to further redistribute it, and to see and change the code; the code and rights become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from a combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the freedoms discussed above. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to certain GNU Libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in all GNU source code distributions and in many of our manuals. We will also send you a printed copy upon request.
The Free Software Foundation does not provide any technical support. Although we create software, we leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable entities for which the practitioners charge a distribution and service fee.
We maintain a list of people who offer support and other consulting
services, called the GNU Service Directory. It is in the file
`etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the
GCC distribution and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on anonymous FTP host
prep.ai.mit.edu. Contact us if you would like a printed copy
or wish to be listed in it.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements and questions.
They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the
You can get a list of these mailing lists by mailing your request to either
address on the front cover.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not. Our task is so large that we must focus on that which helps the community as a whole. We do not have the resources to help individuals. We may send you a patch for a bug that helps us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
So, please do not ask us to help you install the software or figure out how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script does not work or where the documentation is unclear.
If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site, or a commercial UUCP site such as:
UUNET Communications Services
3110 Fairview Park Drive - Suite 570
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone: 1-800-4UUNET4 or (703) 204-8000
Fax: (703) 204-8001
A long list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted
periodically to USENET in the newsgroup
with `Subject: How to become a USENET site'.
Hundred Acre Consulting continues to provide support and development services, with its specialty being the GNU CC and C++ compilers. It continues its policy of donating a percentage of its profit to the FSF. Since we described its services just 5 months ago, it has hired 3 more people and moved to bigger offices. The new address is:
Hundred Acre Consulting
5301 Longley Lane, Suite D-144
Reno, NV 89511
Phone: (702) 829-9700 or 1-800-245-2885
Fax: (702) 829-9926
If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!
Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept all currencies, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.
If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to have your donation matched by your employer. If you do not know, please ask your personnel department.
$500 $250 $100 $50 other $________ Other currency:________
Circle the amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:
Free Software Foundation 675 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 USA
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support will match gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.
Cygnus will match donations from its employees up to a maximum of $1000 per employee, and will match donations from customers and their employees at 50% to a maximum of $1000 per customer. Cygnus Support will donate up to a total of $10,000 in 1993.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Support where they will be matched and forwarded to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). Donations sent to the FSF directly will not be matched, except by prior arrangement with Cygnus Support.
Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, has developed OCEAN, a comprehensive chip design package. It includes a full set of powerful tools for synthesis and verification of semi-custom sea-of-gates and gate-array chips. OCEAN covers the back-end of the design trajectory--from circuit level, down to layout and a working chip.
OCEAN provides interactive tools for placement, routing, simulation and extraction, either automatically or manually guided. It is available as free software, with full source code, and is known to run on Linux, HP and Sun workstations under the X Window System. For import and export of data, it knows about EDIF, BLIF, SLS, GDSII, CIF, SPICE and LDM.
You can obtain OCEAN by anonymous FTP from
donau.et.tudelft.nl. For more information, contact
email@example.com on the Internet.
A group of companies including Intel, Motorola, Texas Instruments & Analog Devices have pooled funds to support central maintenance of GNU CC. The maintenance will be coordinated by Richard Kenner of New York University.
The task of central maintenance is to take responsibility for fixing bugs, integrating and cleaning up contributions, making releases and writing high priority improvements.
Richard Stallman hopes this will enable him to undertake a new project.
p2c, DejaGnu, Tile Forth and the standalone GNU
regex library have been added. Details in "Contents of the
GNU Shogi and UUCP have been added. See "Contents of the
Utilities Tape" for more information.
cpp with their C compiler.
firstname.lastname@example.org, or get file
`/pub/FWF/README' via anonymous FTP to
This file tells about mailing lists, locations of source code available for
FTP, historical information about the FWF and how to volunteer for the
organization. Or write:
The Free Widget Foundation c/o Brian Totty Department of Computer Science University of Illinois - Urbana 1304 W. Springfield Avenue Urbana, IL 61801 USA
The International Center for Scientific and Technical Information hosted a free software conference in Moscow, April 19--23, 1993. Over two hundred people attended, arriving from the Commonwealth of Independent States, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iran, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Guest of honor Richard Stallman explained why he writes free
software. Among the topics of the conference were an Algol--68 to C
converter, the Andrew User Interface System, Coexistence in a World of
New Freedoms, Efficient Recognition of Static Search Sets with
gperf, experiences from implementing a free Modula--2
translator, Russian Experiences from a Children's Computer Club, the
Russian SQL server currently under development, the Russian PLATON
Integrated Bank System, GNU Documentation in Russia, Linux in Education
and Free Software in Russia. Other topics included resource
organization (databases and directories), and free software business
The conference was sponsored by PC World magazine, PC Center "Techno", UrbanSoft Ltd. of St. Petersburg, Trading House Ostankino, KLOTO Scientific Research, Zelenogradsky Center "Zelax" and John Goode.
Write Victor P. Ivannikov,
email@example.com, or Yuri P.
firstname.lastname@example.org, to contact GNU in Russia.
For more information about the conference, contact Geoffrey S.
The League for Programming Freedom has filed an amicus ("friend of the court") brief to support American Multi-Systems, a small business that was shut down by a court for violating two casino game software patents held by a company called Fortunet.
Fortunet, which has shut down other makers of casino games in the
past, obtained a preliminary injunction restraining Vern Blanchard,
the owner of AMS, from selling or servicing a Bingo program. The League
for Programming Freedom asked its members for prior art. Marshall
Midden and Steve Peltz found a multi--user Bingo program that had
been played on the
Plato system in the 1970's. The judge,
however, granted the motion on the grounds that a time--sharing system
playing Bingo is different from a networked system playing Bingo.
Fortunet has an expert witness with an impressive resume who is
expressing the most absurd opinions.
The LPF brief argues against the validity of software patents in general and these patents in particular. It also argues that they do not apply to the AMS Bingo system. The brief has already had an effect--the judge has scheduled a hearing to reconsider the injuction.
Fighting a patent in court is a grueling experience even if you ultimately succeed. The only feasible way to solve the problem of software patents is to address the problem as a whole. This is the main activity of the LPF. To succeed, it needs your support.
The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents. The LPF does not endorse free software or the FSF.
The League's members include programmers, entrepreneurs, students, professors, and even software companies.
From the League membership form:
The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, and users dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. Our aim is to reverse the recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.
Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.
To join, please send a check and the following information:
The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation and is not itself a free software organization. The FSF supports the LPF because, like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by software patents. You are in danger too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens.
If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information,
or send Internet mail to
email@example.com. The address is:
League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square - #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 243-4091
Wishes for this issue are for:
firstname.lastname@example.org for the task list and coding standards.
The Text Software Initiative (TSI) is an international effort to promote the development and use of free software for all kinds of text analysis and manipulation, including markup of physical and logical text features, linguistic analysis and annotation, browsing and retrieval, statistical analysis and other text-related tasks in research in computational linguistics, humanities computing, terminology and lexicography, speech, etc. A central component of TSI is the development of guidelines and standards for text software, in order to ensure compatibility, extendability and reusability.
TSI borrows from the principles of FSF, by promoting distributed software development on a voluntary basis and protecting the freedom to copy, redistribute and modify software.
For more information, contact the project coordinators, who are Nancy
email@example.com and Jean Veronis,
There is more to freely redistributable information than software. Here is a partial list of organizations providing other forms of freely redistributable information.
firstname.lastname@example.org, is working on a
project called "FreeLore". One goal is to create a core of useful,
copylefted textbooks. Currently, he is testing a prototype curriculum
for students from junior-high school through early college; the
curriculum is written in Texinfo. The FreeLore project is looking for
volunteers. For more information, contact John Goodwin.
obi.std.com. You can also dial
world.std.com with a modem (617-739-9753, 8N1) and create an
account to access this information (login as
new). Accounts on
world are charged for their connect time (ask
email@example.com for details).
mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu in file `/etext' and
oes.orst.edu in file `/pub/almanac/etext'. For
instructions on how to obtain text from Bitnet, send the word `HELP' in
the body of a message to
BITFTP%PUCC.BITNET@mitvma.mit.edu on the Internet).
Instructions will be mailed. Or look at
bit.listserv.gutnberg, a USENET
ICOT (Institute for Next Generation Computer Technology) is distributing
the fifth-generation software produced by their research efforts as free
software. This includes over 70 megabytes of programs for symbol
processing, knowledge representation, problem solving and inference and
natural language processing. For more information, contact
firstname.lastname@example.org, and Nobuyuki Hikichi,
email@example.com, continue to work on the GNU Project in
Japan. They have translated the FSF Order Form and GNU's Bulletin into
Japanese and are distributing them widely. They ask for donations and
also offer GNU software consulting. Recently they began redistributing
their Japanese translation of the GNU General Public License Version 2.
This translation is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous
`/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. Yukitoshi Fujimura from
Addison--Wesley Publishers in Japan greatly contributed to this
translation. Work is underway on a formal translation of the GNU Library
General Public License.
Japanese versions of GNU Emacs (
nemacs), Epoch (
and MULE are available and widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual
Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once.
Eventually its features will be merged into FSF's version of Emacs.
firstname.lastname@example.org, is beta testing MULE; you
can FTP sources from
sh.wide.ad.jp in `/JAPAN/mule'
etlport.etl.go.jp in `/pub/mule'.
The Village Center, Inc. has printed a Japanese translation of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and uploaded the Texinfo source to various bulletin boards. Recently, they also published a copylefted book, Mieko's Think GNU. This appears to be the first copylefted publication in Japan, apart from those by the FSF. Part of the revenue generated is donated to the FSF. The address is:
Village Center, Inc. Kanda Amerex Bldg. 2F 1-16, 3-Chome, Misaki-Cho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 Japan
A group connected with the commercial personal computer network in Japan
is writing and distributing a copylefted hardware (circuit diagram)
design system that runs on a MIPS-architecture CPU. The
which runs on this machine, is a subset of Unix that uses GCC and GDB as
the system's compiler and debugger. They are also running Mach and
Many groups in Japan distribute GNU software, including JUG (a PC user
group), ASCII (publishers) and the Fujitsu FM Towns users group.
Anonymous UUCP is also now available in Japan; for more information
email@example.com. Publishers in Japan are steadily
releasing more articles and books about GNU software and FSF.
You can order GNU software directly from the FSF. For Japan, we provide
an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, as well as a toll--free facsimile
firstname.lastname@example.org for a copy of
the order form. We encourage you to buy tapes: every 150 tape orders
allows FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.
The FSF does not distribute
nepoch or MULE on
tape; however MULE is available on the GNU Source Code CD-ROM.
recover-file also reinstalls the buffer's undo history
GNU Fortran is in "private" alpha test (testing by a small group of
experts) and is not yet publicly released. Until
g77 is fully
released to the public, we ask people to use
f2c (a Fortran-to-C
gcc (the GNU C compiler). As
g77 uses a
lot of these two tools (the
f2c libraries and the
end), using them and reporting any problems you find will help speed the
g77. See "Contents of the Languages Tapes."
The primary focus of the alpha test is to test the
g77 front end,
since that has most of the new code. The secondary focus of the alpha
test is to test the integration between the front end and the back end.
Currently, this is where most of the bugs seem to be. The tertiary
focus is the quality of code generated by the GNU back end.
A mailing list exists for those interested in
g77. To subscribe,
contact the author and/or current maintainer of
g77, write to
which wastes less memory than the old GNU
malloc. The GNU
regular-expression functions (
regex) now mostly conform to the
POSIX 1003.2 standard.
stdio lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a
few C functions. The
fmemopen function uses this to open a
stream on a string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your
printf formats to use a C function you have written. For
example, you can safely use format strings from user input to implement
printf-like function for another programming language.
getopt functions are already used to parse options,
including long options, in many GNU utilities.
Version 1.06 of the GNU C Library has just been released. It includes
the relocating allocator used in Emacs 19, as well as new ports to Dynix
on Sequent Symmetry, SCO and SVR4 on i386, and Solaris 2 on SPARC. This
is the first release to include the GNU C Library Reference
Manual. For more information, see "Contents of Experimental Tape."
nexus.yorku.ca in `/pub/scheme/new',
altdorf.ai.mit.edu in `/archive/scm' or
prep.ai.mit.edu in `/pub/gnu/jacal'.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on tape, diskettes or CD-ROM yet. To
receive an IBM PC floppy disk with the source and executable files, send
Aubrey Jaffer 84 Pleasant Street Wakefield, MA 01880 USA
make version 3.67 has just been released. It now supports
the popular `+=' syntax for appending more text to a variable's
make has come with a standard GNU
script since version 3.63. GNU
make complies fully with the
POSIX.2 standard, and also supports long options, parallel command
execution, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution and
powerful text manipulation functions. For those with no vendor-supplied
make utility at all, GNU
make now comes with a shell
script called `build.sh' to build
make the first time,
before you have any
make program to use.
and for generating embedded Postscript. Oleo still needs documentation.
If you would like to write a Texinfo manual for Oleo, contact Tom Lord,
email@example.com. Please send bug reports regarding
firstname.lastname@example.org. See "Contents of
enscript); a utility to extract the text from a Postscript
document; a much more reliable (and faster) Microsoft Windows
implementation; support for Microsoft C/C++ 7.0; drivers for many
new printers, including the SPARCprinter, and for TIFF/F (fax) file
format; many more Postscript Level 2 facilities, including most of the
color space facilities (but not patterns), and the ability to switch
between Level 1 and Level 2 dynamically.
Ghostscript accepts commands in Postscript and executes them by writing
directly to a printer, drawing on an X window or writing to a file that
you can print later (or to a bitmap file that you can manipulate with
other graphics programs). Tim Theisen,
email@example.com, has created Ghostview, a previewer
for multi-page files that runs on top of Ghostscript. Russell Lang,
firstname.lastname@example.org, has created Ghostview for
Windows, a similar previewer that runs on Microsoft Windows.
Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs
that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also supports
IBM PCs and compatibles with EGA, VGA or SuperVGA graphics (but please do
not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use PCs).
The next planned Ghostscript release will be 3.0, available in the first
quarter of 1994. It will implement the full Postscript Level 2
James Clark has completed
troff and related
programs). Written in C++, they can be compiled with GNU C++
Version 2.3 or later.
groff will be fixed, but no major new developments are
currently planned. However,
groff users are encouraged to
continue to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo
grap emulation (a
pic preprocessor for
typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2) and an ASCII output
pic so that
pic can be integrated with Texinfo.
Thanks to all those who have contributed bug reports.
makeinfo, a standalone formatter, and
info, a standalone
Info reader are included. Both are written in C and are independent of
P.O. Box 2841
Laguna Hills, CA
Phone: (714) 770-8532
Universitaet Passau, FMI
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use on-line and printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain the underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, and give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy and on-line hypertext-like display via the menu-driven Info system. These manuals, source for which is provided with our software, are also available in hardcopy; see the "Free Software Foundation Order Form."
Several GNU manuals are now bound as soft cover books with a new lay-flat binding technology. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. Each book has an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Texinfo, GAWK, Make, GDB, Bison and Flex manuals have this binding. All other GNU manuals are also bound so they lie flat when opened, using other technologies.
The Emacs Manual describes editing with GNU Emacs. The new 8th
edition has been updated for Emacs 19. It also explains advanced
features, such as outline mode and regular expression search, how to use
special modes for programming in languages like C++ and TeX, how
to use the
tags utility, how to compile and correct code, and how
to make your own keybindings and other elementary customizations.
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual covers this programming language in great depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching and matching, modes, windows, keymaps, markers, byte compilation and the operating system interface.
The Texinfo Manual explains the markup language used to generate both the online Info documentation and typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, how to use Texinfo mode in GNU Emacs and how to catch mistakes.
The GAWK Manual describes how to use the GNU implementation of
awk. It is written for someone who has never used
describes all the features of this powerful string and record
The Make Manual describes GNU
make, a program used to
rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write
makefiles, which specify how a program is to be compiled and how
its files depend on each other. The new edition of the manual describes
the new features in
make version 3.64, and includes a new
introductory chapter for novice users, as well as a new section on
automatically generated dependencies.
Debugging with GDB explains how to use the GNU Debugger, run your program under debugger control, examine and alter data, modify the flow of control within the program and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The Bison Manual teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.
The Flex Manual tells you how to write a lexical scanner
definition for the
flex program to create a C-coded scanner that
will recognize the patterns described. You need no prior knowledge of
Using and Porting GNU CC explains how to run, install and port the GNU C compiler. Currently, we are distributing two versions of GCC, version 1 and version 2, each documented by a different edition of the manual.
The Termcap Manual, often described as "Twice as much as you ever wanted to know about Termcap," details the format of the Termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.
The Emacs Calc Manual includes both a tutorial and a reference manual for Calc. It describes how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.
The C Library Reference Manual describes almost all of the
facilities of the GNU C library, including both what Unix calls
"library functions" and "system calls." We are doing limited print
runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. It is new, and we
would like corrections and improvements. Please send them to
We offer Unix software source distributions tapes in
on the following media:
We also offer:
The contents of the various 9-track and cartridge tapes for Unix systems are the same (except for the RS/6000 Emacs tape, which also has executables); only the media are different (see the "Free Software Foundation Order Form"). Source code for the manuals comes in Texinfo format. We welcome all bug reports.
Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed with
make them fit. Refer to the top-level `README' file at the
beginning of each tape for instructions on uncompressing them.
unpack do not work!
Version numbers listed after program names were current at the time this Bulletin was published. When you order a distribution tape, some of the programs might be newer, and therefore the version number higher.
Some of the contents of our tape and FTP distributions are compressed. We
have software on our tapes and FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to
patent troubles with
compress, we have switched to another
gzip can expand LZW-compressed
files but uses a different algorithm for compression which generally
produces better results. It also uncompresses files compressed with System
make supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure
features of the BSD and System V versions of
make, as well as
many of our own extensions. GNU extensions include long options,
parallel compilation, conditional execution and functions for text
manipulation. Source for the Make Manual comes with the program.
make is on several of our tapes because some native
make programs lack the
VPATH feature essential for using
the GNU configure system to its full extent. A script is included to
make on such systems.
This tape contains MIT Scheme 7.1. Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming, and to research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques. The current version conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included.
MIT Scheme is written in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries which can be used to bootstrap Scheme are available for the following systems:
If your system is not on this list and you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see the "JACAL" entry in the "Project GNU Status Report."
This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters and related programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).
cfront (the AT&T compiler), as
has been diverging from ANSI. G++ 1 comes with source for the
GNU G++ User's Guide (not yet published on paper). G++
compiles source quickly, provides good error messages and works well with
GDB. Each release of G++ 1 depends on the same numbered release of GCC
1 (in GCC version 2, G++ is merged with GCC).
ld or GDB) to support many different formats
in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs
to know the actual details of a particular format. One consequence of this
design is that all of programs using BFD will support formats such as
a.out, COFF, ELF and ROSE. BFD comes with documentation in Texinfo form.
ae works with GCC to produce more complete profiling information.
strip. The GNU linker
fast, and is the only linker which emits source-line numbered error
messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references.
yacc, with more features. Bison Manual and reference card
sources are included.
robotussin is supplied for
converting standard libraries to this format. However, this workaround is
becoming obsolete, as it is being replaced by BFD (see "Project GNU Status
Report" and "Contents of the Languages Tape").
expect 4.5.2 alpha and Tcl 6.7
DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs. Its purpose is to
provide a single front end for all tests. The flexibility and consistency
of the DejaGnu framework make it easy to write tests for any program.
expect (which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with programs) and Tcl
(an embeddable tool command language) are both provided in this package,
since DejaGnu uses them and they are useful programs in their own right.
dld is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your
program with the
dld library allows you to dynamically load object
files into the running binary.
f2c converts Fortran--77 source files into C or C++, which can
then be compiled with GCC.
flex is a mostly-compatible replacement for the
generator, written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
flex generates far more efficient scanners than
Sources for the Flex Manual and reference card are included.
as and works for 32x32, m68k, 80386,
SPARC (Sun-4) & VAX.
awk. Source for the GAWK Manual comes with the software.
gdbm library is the GNU replacement for the traditional
ndbm libraries, which implement a database using
quick lookup by hashing.
gdbm supports both styles but does not
need sparse database formats (unlike its Unix counterparts).
GNU MP (
gmp) is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic,
operating on signed integers and rational numbers. It has a rich set of
functions, all with a regular interface.
gperf is a "perfect" hash-table generation utility. There are
actually two implementations of
gperf, one written in C and one in
C++. Both will produce hash functions in either C or C++.
indent is the GNU-modified version of the freely-redistributable BSD
program of the same name. It formats C source according to GNU coding
standards by default, though the original default and other formats are
available as options.
p2c is a Pascal-to-C translator written by Dave Gillespie. It is
intended primarily for use on 32-bit machines, though porting it to convert
code to work on 16-bit machines may be possible.
Larry Wall has written a fast interpreter named
perl which combines
the features and capabilities of
sh and C,
as well as interfaces to all the system calls and many C library routines.
Perl Mode for editing
perl code comes with GNU Emacs 19.
gzip 1.0.7 and
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these
This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous applications not available on the other GNU tapes.
m4 macro calls. Many GNU
programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.
sh and offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history and
command-line editing (with Emacs and
vi modes built-in and the
ability to rebind keys) via the readline library.
bc is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision.
bc was implemented from the POSIX 1003.2 draft standard, but it
has several extensions including multi-character variable names, an
else statement and full Boolean expressions.
cpio is an alternative archive program with all the features of SVR4
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1
dc is an RPN calculator. GNU
bc does not require a separate
dc program to run. This version of
dc will eventually be
merged with the
diff compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
flexible formats. It is much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
The "diffutils" distribution contains
This program is intended as a utility to help software developers ensure
that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with
14-character filenames and on MS-DOS with 11 character filenames.
elvis is a clone of the
ex Unix editor. It
supports nearly all of the
ex commands in both visual and
elvis runs under BSD, System V, Xenix, Minix, MS-DOS and
Atari TOS, and should be easy to port to many other systems.
This is an extensible shell based on
rc but with more features
including first class functions, lexical scope, an exception system and
rich return values (i.e. functions can return values other than just
rc, it is great for both interactive use and for
scripting, particularly because its quoting rules are much less baroque
than the C or Bourne shells.
find is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to
find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on
locate are also included.
GNU Finger works on a wide variety of systems. For more information, see
the "Project GNU Status Report."
acm 2.4, MandelSpawn 0.06, GNU Chess 4.0.pl61,
NetHack 3.1, GnuGo 1.1, GNU Shogi 1.1.pl01 and
acm is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer aerial combat simulation that
runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat
against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. Eventually we
hope to turn this into a more general purpose flight simulator.
MandelSpawn is a parallel Mandelbrot program for the MIT X Window System.
GNU Chess and GNU Shogi have text and X display interfaces (see "Project
GNU Status Report"). NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar
to Rogue. GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); it is not yet very
sophisticated. GNU Shogi plays a Japanese game, similar to Chess, known as
"Shogi". A major difference from Western Chess is that captured pieces
can be returned into play.
hello program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It
allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would
otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU
General Public License, users are free to share and change it.
gnuplot is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
expressions and data. Curiously, the program was neither written nor named
for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence.
See the entry on GNU Graphics in "Contents of the Experimental Tape" for
information on a related program.
gptx is the GNU version of
ptx, a permuted index generator.
Among other things, it produces readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context)
indexes without the need of
nroff and there is an option to output
[ef]grep programs are GNU's versions of the Unix programs of the
same name. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
groff 1.08 and
groff is a document formatting system, which includes
as well as drivers for Postscript, TeX dvi format and typewriter-like
devices. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
macros and an enhanced version of the X11
mgm is a macro package for
groff. It is almost compatible
with the DWB
mm macros and has several extensions.
less is a display paginator similar to
with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) which most
m4 is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor.
It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (for example,
handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).
m4 also has
built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing
patch is our version of Larry Wall's program to take
output and apply those differences to an original file to generate the
diff, RCS can
handle binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc).
rc is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells.
It's intended to be used interactively, but is great for writing scripts as
recode converts between character sets and usages. When exact
transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of offending characters
or fall back on approximations. It recognizes or produces more than a
dozen character sets and can convert each set to almost any other one.
recode pays special attention to superimposition of diacritics,
particularly for French.
screen is a terminal multiplexor that runs several independent
"screens" (ttys) on a single physical terminal. Each virtual terminal
emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ANSI X3.64 and ISO 2022 functions.
screen sessions can be detached and resumed later on a different
sed is a stream-oriented version of
ed. It is used copiously
in shell scripts.
tar includes multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse
files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote archives and
special features that allow
tar to be used for incremental and full
backups. Unfortunately GNU
tar implements an early draft of the
ustar standard which is different from the final
standard. Adding support for the new changes in a backward-compatible
fashion is not trivial.
time is used to report statistics (usually from a shell) about the
amount of user, system and real time used by a process.
tput is a portable way to allow shell scripts to use special
terminal capabilities. GNU
tput uses the Termcap database, rather
than Terminfo as most implementations do.
g (in all
window and packet sizes),
e protocols, as
well a Zmodem protocol and two new bidirectional protocols. If you have a
Berkeley sockets library, it can make TCP connections. If you have TLI
libraries, it can make TLI connections.
wdiff compares two files, finding which words have been deleted or
added to the first in order to obtain the second. We hope eventually to
integrate it, as well as some ideas from a similar program called
spiff, into future releases of GNU
The "shellutils" are small commands used on the command line or in shell
The "textutils" programs manipulate textual data:
gzip 1.0.7 and
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these
This tape includes software which is currently in beta test and is available for people who are feeling adventurous. Some of the software already has released versions on the distribution tapes. The contents of this tape are transient; as the programs become stable, they will replace older versions on other tapes. Please send bug reports to the address in the notes for each program on the tape. Note that Emacs 19, in beta test, is on the Emacs tape.
long int). It supports extended floating point (type
on the 68k; other machines will follow. It can generate code for most of
the same machines as version 1, plus the following: AMD 29000, Acorn RISC,
DEC Alpha, Elxsi, HP-PA (700 & 800), IBM RS/6000, IBM RT/PC, Intel 80386,
Intel 960, Motorola 88000 & SPARC (running Solaris 2). Version 2 can
generate a.out, COFF, ELF & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable
assembler. It can produce debugging information in several formats: BSD
stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs symbols & DWARF.
Not all of the version 1 machine descriptions have been updated yet; some
do not work, and others need work to take full advantage of instruction
scheduling and delay slots. The old machine descriptions for the Alliant,
Tahoe and Spur (as well as a new port for the Tron) do not work, but are
still included in the distribution in case someone wants to work on them.
Using the new configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as
easy as building a compiler for the same target machine. Version 2
supports more general calling conventions: it can pass arguments "by
reference" and can preallocate the space for stack arguments. GCC 2 on
the SPARC uses the standard conventions for structure arguments and return
Version 2 of the compiler supports three languages: C, C++ and
Objective C; the source file name extension or a compiler option selects
the language. The front end support for Objective C was donated by NeXT.
The runtime support needed to run Objective C programs is now distributed
with GCC (this does not include any Objective C classes aside from
GNU C has been extended to support nested functions, nonlocal gotos and
taking the address of a label.
Texinfo source for the manual, Using and Porting GNU CC, is included.
configure script and runs on Sun-3
(SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 & Solaris 2), HP 9000/300 & SONY News 800
(4.3 BSD), MIPS DECstation (Ultrix 4), i386/i486 (System V, SVR4, BSD,
386BSD, NetBSD, SCO 3.2 & SCO ODT 2.0) & Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3).
Source for the new GNU C Library Reference Manual is included.
plot2ps; support for output in ln03 and TekniCAD
TDA file formats; a replacement for the
spline program; examples of
shell scripts using
plot; the addition of a
statistics toolkit; and the use of
configure for installation.
Existing ports need retesting. Contact Rich Murphey,
Rich@rice.edu, if you can help test/port it to anything beyond
The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 5 of the MIT X Window System. The first FSF tape contains all of the core software, documentation and some contributed clients. We call this the "required" X tape since it is necessary for running X or running GNU Emacs under X. The second, "optional", FSF tape contains contributed libraries and other toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games and other programs.
The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date. We update this tape as new fizes and patches are released.
The Berkeley "Net2" release contains the second 4.3 BSD distribution and is newer than both 4.3 BSD-Tahoe and 4.3 BSD-Reno. It includes most of the BSD software system except for a few utilities, some parts of the kernel and some library routines which your own C library is likely to provide (we have replacements on other tapes for many of the missing programs). This release also contains third party software including Kerberos and some GNU software.
We offer two VMS tapes. One has just the GNU Emacs editor. The other has the GNU C compiler, Bison (to compile GCC), GAS (to assemble GCC's output) and some library and include files. We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have executables from which you can bootstrap, as the DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.
The FSF has a tape subscription service. If you do not have net access, the subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest FSF developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three tapes, we will mail you four new versions of the tape of your choice over the course of the next year.
Every quarter, we will send you a new version of an Emacs, Languages, Utilities, Experimental or MIT X Window System Required tape. The BSD Net-2, MIT Scheme and the MIT X Window System Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant quarterly updates.
Since Emacs 19 is now on the Emacs Tape, a subscription will be a convenient way to keep current with Emacs 19 updates as it moves through beta-test.
A subscription is also an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the MIT X Window System. We update the X11 Required tape, as fixes and patches for the X Window System are issued throughout the year.
See section "Subscriptions" in the "Free Software Foundation Order Form".
All the software and publications from Free Software Foundation are distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. The easiest way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it.
You can get GNU software direct from the FSF by ordering diskettes, a tape or a CD-ROM. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff, so please support us by ordering if you can. See the "Free Software Foundation Order Form".
There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. For your convenience we list some of them; see "Free Software for Microcomputers". Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is responsible for neither the currency of their versions nor the swiftness of their responses.
If you have Internet access and cannot access one of the hosts below, you
can get the software via anonymous FTP from GNU's distribution host
prep.ai.mit.edu (the IP address is
more information, get file `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE'.
prep is a very busy host and only allows a limited number of FTP
logins at any given time. Please use another machine, if at all possible.
These TCP/IP Internet sites provide GNU software via anonymous FTP
anonymous, password: your
e-mail address, mode:
binary). Please try them before
archie.oz for ACSnet),
cc.utah.edu (VMS GNU Emacs),
ftp.uu.net (under `/packages/gnu').
Those on JANET can look under
You can get some GNU programs via UUCP. Ohio State University posts their
UUCP instructions regularly to newsgroup
USENET. These people will send you UUCP instructions via electronic mail:
hao!scicom!qetzal!upba!ugn!nepa!denny, uunet!hutch!barber, email@example.com (Europe), firstname.lastname@example.org, acornrc!bob, email@example.com (Japan), firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
For those without Internet access, see the section "Free Software Support" for information on getting electronic mail and file transfer via UUCP.
The Free Software Foundation has produced its second CD-ROM. This CD-ROM
contains sources for all of the programs on the Emacs, Languages,
Utilities, Experimental, and the MIT X Required and Optional tapes. In
addition, the CD-ROM contains the sources for MULE 0.9.7 (see "Free
Software and GNU in Japan"); some packages ported to Intel 80386 and
80486-based machines running MS-DOS: Demacs, DJGPP 2.4 and MIT Scheme 7.2;
and a snapshot of the Emacs Lisp Archive at Ohio State University. (You
can get libraries in this archive by UUCP (ask
firstname.lastname@example.org for directions) or by anonymous FTP
The CD-ROM does not contain the contents of the MIT Scheme, VMS or Net2 tapes.
The version numbers of the software on the CD-ROM correspond to the version numbers listed in "GNU Software Available Now."
The CD-ROM is in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file system on most operating systems. If your driver supports it you can mount the CD-ROM with "Rock Ridge" extensions and it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated and otherwise mangled names that fit the vanilla ISO 9660 specifications.
You can build most of this software without needing to copy the sources off the CD. It requires only enough free disk space for the object files and the intermediate build targets. Except for the GCC binaries for SPARCstations running Solaris 2.0 and the MS-DOS binaries, there are no precompiled programs on this CD. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program).
The CD costs $400 if you are buying it for a business or other organization, or $100 if you are buying it for yourself.
The Free Software Foundation has been repeatedly asked to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Usually we offer only sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe Distribution includes copies of all our printed manuals and reference cards.
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete MIT X Window System and the GNU utilities.
You may choose one of these machines and operating systems: HP 9000 series
200, 300, 700 or 800 (4.3 BSD or HP-UX); RS/6000 (AIX); SONY News 68k (4.3
BSD or NewsOS 4); Sun-3, Sun-4 or SPARC (SunOS 4 or Solaris). If your
machine or system is not listed, or if a specific program has not been
ported to that machine, please call the FSF office at the phone number
below or send e-mail to
We will supply the software on one of these media in Unix tar format: 1600 or 6250 bpi, 1/2 inch, reel to reel tape; Sun DC300XLP 1/4 inch cartridge, QIC-24; HP 16 track DC600HC 1/4 inch cartridge; IBM RS/6000 1/4 inch cartridge, QIC-150; Exabyte 8mm tape. If your computer cannot read any of these, please call us.
The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler, GNU C Library, GNU Debugger, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Make, Texinfo and Termcap manuals; six copies of the manual for GNU Emacs; and a packet of reference cards each for GNU Emacs, Calc, the GNU Debugger, Bison and Flex.
In addition to the printed and on-line documentation, every Deluxe Distribution includes a CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions) that contains sources of our software.
The Deluxe Distribution costs $5000. This package is for people who want to get everything compiled for them or who want to make a purchase that helps the FSF in a large way. To order the package, please fill out the "Free Software Foundation Order Form", and send it to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc. 675 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 USA Phone: (617) 876-3296 Electronic mail: email@example.com
FSF distributes, on 3.5 inch 1.44MB diskettes, some of the GNU software that has been ported to MS-DOS. The disks have both sources and executables.
Demacs is a version of GNU Emacs 18.55 ported to MS-DOS, with some changes from Emacs 18.57. Two versions are actually included--one which handles 8-bit character sets, and one, based on Nemacs, which handles 16-bit character sets, including Kanji. FSF distributes it on five diskettes.
Demacs runs on Intel 80386 and 80486--based machines running MS-DOS. It is compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with Microsoft Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers.
DJGPP is a complete port of GCC, libraries, development utilities and a symbolic debugger, for Intel 80386 and 80486--based machines running MS-DOS. FSF distributes it on four diskettes.
DJGPP requires at least 5MB of hard disk space to install, and 512K of RAM
to use. It is compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with
Microsoft Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers. It cannot emulate
multitasking (e.g. the Unix
fork system call) or signals.
The GNUish MS-DOS Project releases GNU software ported to PC compatibles. In general, this software will run on 8086 and 80286--based machines; an 80386 is not required. Some of these utilities are necessarily missing features. FSF distributes it on a set of diskettes.
We are distributing these utilities, both source and executables: RCS,
We are distributing versions of GNU Chess and
gnuplot ported to
Microsoft Windows, on a single diskette, containing both source and
We do not provide support for GNU software on microcomputers because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are distributing a few such programs on tape, CD-ROM and diskette. We are also willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites and mailing lists, to either address on the front cover.
See "MS-DOS Distribution" for more information about microcomputer software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. The FSF does not maintain any of it and has no additional information.
Boston Computer Society 1 Kendall Square, Bldg 1400, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Phone: (617) 252-0600
ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/amiga/gnu' (Europe).
For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC port and related projects, ask
firstname.lastname@example.org. For info on the GNU
Emacs port, ask David Gay,
Mark D. Henning,
email@example.com. You can get more info
via anonymous FTP in
(maintained by Howard Chu,
are discussed on USENET in
in file `/pub/os2/2.0/programming/gcc2-222' by FTP. To join the
mailing list, send a message to
tsx-11.mit.edu in `/pub/linux' (USA),
nic.funet.fi in `/pub/OS/Linux' (Europe). Ask
firstname.lastname@example.org about their mailing
lists. See USENET newsgroup
comp.os.linux for Linux
This is the result of the work described in the Dr. Dobb's Journal series
agate.berkeley.edu in `/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-0.8'. For more
ftp.clarkson.edu in `/pub/msdos/djgpp'. You can
subscribe to a mailing list on DJGPP by sending your e-mail address to
The FSF is distributing DJGPP both
on floppies and CD
(see "MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
int86 Lisp function, machine-specific features such as
function key support, file name completion with drive name, child processes
call-process). Dired mode works without
`ls.exe'. Anonymous FTP it from:
ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/gnu/emacs/demacs' (Europe).
The FSF is distributing Demacs both
on floppies and CD
(see "MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
email@example.com, has written a small
programmable editor called Freemacs. It is compatible enough with GNU
Emacs that Freemacs users can use the GNU Emacs Manual as a
reference for it. It will run on most MS-DOS systems, including 8088
Anonymous FTP it from `emacs16a.zip' (under
send $15 (copying fee) to:
Russ Nelson 11 Grant St. Potsdam, NY 13676 USA Phone: (315) 268-1925 (Fax: 9201)Specify floppy format:
about MS-DOS ports of GNU programs and related mailing lists. Or
anonymous FTP files `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/MSDOS*' on
The FSF is distributing MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs on
(see "MS-DOS Distribution"
and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
We still have our Free Software Foundation T-shirts available, designed by Cambridge artist Jamal Hannah. The front of the t-shirt has an image of a GNU hacking at a workstation with the text "GNU's Not Unix" above and the text "Free Software Foundation" below. They are available in two colors, Natural and Black. Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed with black ink, and is great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is. Black is printed with white ink and is perfect for late night hacking. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, and are available in sizes M, L, XL and XXL.
Use the "Free Software Foundation Order Form" to order your shirt, and consider getting one as a present for your favorite hacker!
Work for something because it is good, not just because it stands a chance to succeed.
Thanks to all those mentioned above in "Informal GCC Consortium", "GNUs Flashes", "Project GNU Status Report", "GNU in Japan" and "GNU Software Available Now".
Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the Laboratory for Computer Science at MIT for their invaluable assistance.
Thanks to the Max-Plack-Institut fuer Informatik Im Stadtwald for buying our Deluxe Distribution package.
Thanks are due to the following people for their assistance in Japan: Nobuyuki Hikichi & Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Dr. Ikuo Takeuchi, Bob Myers, David Littleboy, Mike Kandall, Prof. Masayuki Ida, SEA & Japan Unix Society, Michio Nagashima & Paul Abramson. Thanks to Village Center, Inc., ASCII Corporation, A.I. Soft and many others in Japan, for their continued donations and support.
Thanks again to the USENIX Association for letting us have a table at their conference; to the Open Software Foundation for their continued support; and to Cygnus Support for assisting Project GNU in many ways.
Thanks to Wired Magazine and Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating us ad space in their separate publications.
Thanks to Warren A. Hunt, Jr. and Computational Logic, Inc. for their donation and support.
Jim Blandy thanks Jamie Zawinski for his implementation of some of the X-related features in Emacs 19.
Thanks go out to all those who have either lent or donated machines, including Cygnus Support for a Sun SPARCstation; Hewlett-Packard for two 80486, six 68030 and four Spectrum computers; Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp. for a Sun-4/110; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their workstation; the MIT Media Laboratory for a Hewlett-Packard 68020; SONY Corp. and Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; IBM Corp. for an RS/6000; the MIT Laboratory of Computer Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software Foundation for the Compaq 386; Delta Microsystems for an Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for 5 IBM RT/PCs; Liant Software Corp. for five VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine; NCD Corporation for an X terminal; and Interleaf, Inc., Veronika Caslavsky, Paul English, Cindy Woolworth and Lisa Bergen for the loan of a scanner.
Thanks to all those who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as those who have contributed other source code, documentation and good bug reports.
Thanks to all those who sent money and offered help.
Thanks also to all those who support us by ordering manuals, distribution tapes, diskettes and CD-ROMs.
The creation of this bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.
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Copyright (C) 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA
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